Mongolian: Introduction

Square: 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 sq mi)

Population:  3,225,167 (2019)

Time zone: +8

Mobile code: +976

National currency: Tugrik (₮) MNT

1$ = 2768₮ (02.2020)

Currency notes: 10, 20, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 10000, 20000

Electricity: 220V 50HZ

Mobile operators: Unitel, Mobicom, Skytel, G-Mobile

Internet speed: 3mbps Mobile


Currently, Mongolia is one of the world’s largest landlocked nations and the 18th largest country in the world. Mongolia’s population of over 3 million and almost half of the population lives in urban centers and 35% still live traditionally in the countryside as pastoral nomads. We have two big neighbors and it is sandwiched between Russia to the north and China to the south.

The end to Mongolia’s version of communism back in 1989 took place remarkably peaceful. After walking away from Soviet-style communism and into a free-market economy some 30 years ago, Mongolia is a totally transformed nation and society.   

Traditionally, Mongolia’s economy is based on herding, basically livestock and its by-products, especially cashmere wool, and agriculture, mostly wheat and vegetables. Also, its rich mineral resources such as copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for most industrial production. Tourism has also become a big growth area in the coming years.

Travel agency in Mongolia

The five traditional herds – the primary domesticated animals that are the mainstay of Mongolia nomadic society are the goat, sheep, cow, camel, and horse. The traditional Mongolian diet is derived from food that can be obtained from these animals and many items of traditional clothing and equipment made from their leather and hair.

Buddhism became Mongolia’s state religion for the third time in the 16th century and in 1639 Mongolia became the independent religious state with the first Bogd Gegeen Zanabazar (1635-1723) as its leader. He translated Buddhist sutras from Tibetan to Mongolian, wrote poetry, and developed a new alphabet, known as the Soyombo script.  

Languages: Mongolian is written using the Cyrillic alphabet in Mongolia. The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian and is spoken by 95% of the population. In the west of the country, the Kazakh language is also spoken.

The National Flag is divided vertically into three parts of identical width. The blue symbolizes the eternal blue sky. The two outer parts are red and symbolize progress and prosperity. The golden Soyombo signifies Mongolian independence and is depicted in the center of the red part nearest to the flag pole. There are 90 characters in the Soyombo alphabet and the first symbolizes a Buddhist blessing bestowed by hand.

Climate and Weather: Mongolia has four distinct seasons with long, cold and dry winters and short, warm and wet summers. With an average of 260 clear sky and sunny days a year, it’s hardly surprising that Mongolia is known as “The land of blue sky”. While winter temperatures in the north drop as low as -26C (-15F), most of the tourists visit generally pleasant in the summertime. Spring is notoriously unpredictable and autumn is regarded by Mongolians as the best time of year.  Spring-like a woman, goes an old and obviously very male –Mongolians saying. And the weather certainly is changeable, tempering the joys of the long winter’s end and the start of the growing cycle.

Winter lasts from mid-November to March, with January the coldest month averaging -26C (-15F). Lakes and rivers are frozen solid up to about meter thick. In some regions, such as the northwest, winter temperatures can drop to -50C.

By mid-July, Mongolia is in full summer mode. The rains begin. The entire countryside is brightly green and dotted with wildflowers.

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